Pleomorphism Theory and Evidence Lyme Type Borrelia Transmit Infection by Blood Contact, Disable Immunity and Cause Fatal Tertiary Brain Disease

The medical context of political co-infection or understanding Lyme controversy.

For over thirty years the term “Lyme disease” has been in general use in the media and as professional medical terminology.  The usage is no longer accurate today because we have 12 or more species of Borrelia being referred to in cases of disease using a name that was coined prior to the discovery of the first organism.  The Borrelia Burgdorferi bacteria in a strict sense are the only organisms that cause Lyme disease.  The other Borrelia species cause infections which are frequently called Lyme “type” disease because they follow a pattern of infection in a general way.

The disease is always because of infection with Borrelia spirochete bacteria and to be accurate, this type of disease should be called “borreliosis”.  The B. Burgdorferi species was first discovered but is only one of 12 Lyme type Borrelia which have been found, named and typed.  This list is growing more rapidly than diagnostic methods have been developed to determine if infection is present.  There are no reliable tests to determine if infection new or old exists or to determine which specific species or variant strains may be involved.  We have newly discovered Borrelia to deal with but no reliable diagnostic tests to use in a model of medical treatment.  The references to Lyme disease and medical treatment are evenly matched for being clumsy in both regards.

New cases of diagnosed Lyme type borreliosis are reaching epidemic numbers, there’s little being done to provide reliable diagnostic tests.  The treatments given are at best superficial while the official medical policy continues to deny that chronic infections exist.  This policy position has been in place for decades and dates back to the early 1980’s.  It was published in prestigious medical periodicals such as The New England Journal of Medicine which expressed the view that Lyme disease is easily treated with a short round of antibiotics.

Typical treatments provided since that time have been 100 mg x 2 a day of Doxycycline taken for 10 days and sometimes 30 days after new infections are diagnosed.  The lab test that has become a standard is the Western bands blood blot test and some doctors are reluctant to prescribe antibiotic treatment without a positive test result.

Here’s the joke.  The Doxycycline antibiotic prescribed for treatment of diagnosed infection of Lyme type Borrelia exactly matches the prescription provided by dermatologists to treat teenagers with acne pimples.  The only difference being that prescriptions written to treat pimples may be renewed for a year or longer while doctors treating Lyme type Borrelia infections are reluctant to extend treatments past one prescription.

The discovery of the first Lyme type bacteria on record occurred when some New York state health department officials went out to Shelter Island and collected ticks to study.  They sent these ticks to the Hamilton, Montana Rocky Mountain Lab facility where a research biologist named Willy Burgdorfer had worked for decades and was an authority on Rocky Mountain spotted fever.  The Burgdorfer study of the ticks from Shelter Island showed them to be infected with a previously unknown type of bacteria. [1]

A new spirochete.  This was an important discovery linking the organism to the mysterious outbreak of a disease at and around the town of Old Lyme, Connecticut.  Burgdorfer used a rigorous research protocol which was that of the German bacteriologist Robert Koch, the bench mark of excellence, to establish his work.  He was successful and in 1983 the first International Lyme Conference was held at Yale University.  The gathered medical experts reviewed and confirmed Burgdorfer’s lab research and the bacteria were named “Borrelia Burgdorferi” at that time.  This was probably the last time official medical authority was prompt in its response to research of these bacteria over the next thirty years.  It was Willy Burgdorfer himself who is believed to ask the question, “What is a spirochete?”

Back to the future.

Burgdorfer as a professional Swiss educated biologist certainly knew what spirochete bacteria are.  The real question he was asking would have been “What is it doing”?  What a spirochete is able to do defines it more than what it looks like.  Burgdorfer surely would have been familiar with the germ theory of “pleomorphism”[2] which means shape shifting activity.

The spirochete phylum of bacteria has been suspected to be pleomorphic for a long time.  Back in 1905 a gifted British researcher named Dr. Joseph E. Dutton [3]died in the Congo Free State at the age of 29 from the spirochete infection of relapsing tick fever.  This bacterium is called Borrelia Duttoni because he identified it with the disease.  That same year a microscopic study by Dutton and his colleague Dr. John L. Todd was published.  Their combined research was focused on locating bacteria and morphology shapes of syphilis bacteria in body fluid and tissue.  A spirochete disease which in 1905 was extremely hard to treat.  Antibiotic drugs had not been discovered and syphilis treponema palladium bacterial infection was a health problem worldwide.  Many people of the late 19th century lived with and died from complications of syphilis which was present everywhere at all levels of society.

What engaged the interest of Dutton and Todd was that blood and tissue taken from people infected with syphilis didn’t look as they expected.  Under the microscope they could see the classic spiral shape of the spirochete bacteria but there were other shapes close beside them.  They made note of distinct round body, rod shaped and L-form shapes present.  There were also anomalous indistinct shapes that seemed to have characteristics of others including spirals which were partly formed.  To Dutton and Todd this was suggestive that syphilis spirochetes were pleomorphic or shape shifting bacteria.  They published this research in 1905.

It was in the early 1970’s a strange illness began to appear in and around the town of Old Lyme, Connecticut.  The key symptom was arthritis and doctors began calling it Lyme arthritis for that reason.  The cause of this condition was debated for the rest of the decade without resolve.  It was called arthritis because this autoimmune condition has no known specific cause; therefore, it was a convenient description at that time.  Burgdorfer’s examination of the Shelter Island ticks established infection by spirochete disease specific bacteria as the cause associated in 1983.

Since 1983 from year to year 12 Borrelia bacteria of Lyme type[4] have been discovered and named.  A total of 37 Borrelia species are known to exist but all do not account for infections of Lyme type disease.  That opinion is the one held at present according to research.

Lyme type Borrelia Burgdorferi is just one of a kind.  The others are each distinct as a specific genetically identified species.  Typical individual species may have variations and the variant strains would tend to produce variations of symptoms as infections.  Variant strains may account for abridged patterns of infection where inflammations that are typical are not seen as a symptom expression in every case.

The characteristic auto immunity disorders that Borrelia infections create follow a wide range of symptom variations also.  Arthritis is only one kind.  All kinds of allergic responses are autoimmune conditions to consider.  In a broad sense autoimmune disorders are not understood but with Borrelia infections some form of immunity disablement is a probable symptom.  Hay fever is not too mundane to include in this category.

The integrated research we already have indicates that an infection of this type erodes immunity in a progressive manner until secondary opportunistic infections by other bacteria and virus organisms are able to take hold on the body.  Serious conditions such as cancer would be more probable when failure of the immune system reaches a point of disability which exposes the body to that hazard.  A pattern of infection similar to the immunity failure of AIDS.  With Lyme type infection the fatal tertiary brain and central nervous failure may not occur owing to a fatal co-infection or condition.   Review of the statistical tables of Syphilis infection and fatality demonstrate the same pattern.  Syphilis, treponema palladium spirochetes are not closely related genetically but Lyme borreliosis and syphilis do tend to be similar.  A three phase course of infection that if not cut short, frequently becomes the fatal 3rd phase tertiary and being frequent but not always, for reasons already suggested.  “Death by complications of” is a classic medical statement and often misdiagnosed before being officially misquoted on death certificates.

The conflicted opinions associated with Lyme borreliosis dates back to [5]Louis Pasteur’s simple germ theory and that of his contemporary Antoine Bèchamp who championed the more complex pleomorphic germ theory.  Interest in “pleomorphism” has undergone a scientific revival.   The conflict between Pasteur’s and Bèchamp’s theories is being sustained because “Pasteur’s germ theory”[6] became a foundation stone for symptom based standards of “allopathic” medicine.  The starting emergence of evidence that supports Bèchamp’s theory of pleomorphism has posed a threat to the authority, control and especially the financial interest of America’s corporate medical industry.  This demonstrates why the road block of Lyme type disease research is on Wall Street where academic and ethical issues have marginal influence on board room decisions.   As to the conflict of the two germ theories, there is no good reason to assume the need for an exclusive choice.  There is evidence and merit for both.  The final outcome cannot be a heads or tails decision because these are two sides of one coin.

The 1940’s pleomorphic bacteria research of Dr. Arthur Kendall and his “K. Medium” experiments and the 1905 work of Dutton and Todd are again being studied by research specialists who are trying to understand Borreliosis infections.  The importance of pleomorphism with Lyme type Borreliosis has to do with trying to corner the bacteria with a model of treatment the Borrelia are not able to survive “as they do in chronic cases”.

The problem as a chronic infection is that antibiotic treatments often fail to eradicate the Borrelia.  This is because of the reactive speed with which these bacteria can respond to chemistry that threatens them.  They will immediately at that point begin a shape shifting process from active spiral forms into passive round body morphology. The round body cystic shape will then protect those which attain it more efficiently.  In this passive state they apparently do not feed or breed so symptoms are not obvious at that time.  This is frequently misinterpreted as a cure by both doctor and patient in typical cases.

After the antibiotic threat is no longer present the cystic Borrelia will again transform into active aggressive spiral forms that feed, breed and renew the course of infection.  That is what the researchers who have studied the Lyme Borrelia for pleomorphic activity believe to be occurring.

A lot of the valid research is not being properly reviewed or published in medical journals.  This studied indifference indicates that political contamination exists and is actively obstructing recognition of scientific discovery.  Individual research is disregarded and the cold shoulder of the official medical establishment and government agency response shows Lyme Borreliosis is complicated by political “co-infection”.  Such accusation requires some noteworthy examples and these which follow are good illustrations of political obstruction.

In the early eighties a young pathologist named [7]Dr. Alan MacDonald was working at South Hampton hospital on Long Island.  His autopsy examinations of crib death and prenatal fetus death made him suspicious an organism was involved.  MacDonald in his pathology work at South Hampton collected evidence from autopsy by photographing the slides through a dark field microscope, capturing images of live bacteria he found present.

These microscope photographs demonstrated the fluids and tissues of dead fetus and infant bodies MacDonald studied in his lab were infected with spirochete Borrelia.  Again on that occasion and just as before with the research of Dutton and Todd in 1905, there was a wide variation of forms seen apart from the classic spiral shape which defines a spirochete.  The concept of “pleomorphism” immediately suggested itself to MacDonald as it had Dutton and Todd.

MacDonald attended the 2nd International Symposium on Lyme Disease and Related Disorders held in Vienna, Austria in 1985.  He presented a slide show of more than 100 photographs which illustrated his belief pleomorphic spirochetes were involved with infection in the various fetus and infant deaths.  This indirectly suggested that the bacteria were blood infective and that congenital infection had occurred with the fetal deaths.  His advocacy for pleomorphism was not generally accepted and he returned again to Long Island to study another disease which he thought might be related.   European doctors at this 2nd symposium had spoken of the dementia observed in syphilis and possibly with Borreliosis if these become tertiary events, meaning a catastrophic brain and central nervous system failure occurs.

This put Macdonald in mind of the similarity between tertiary third phase syphilis causing dementia and Alzheimer’s disease “as” dementia.  MacDonald communicated with the director of the University of California’s brain research group, Dr. George Glenner.  He received four frozen brains of postmortem Alzheimer’s patients to use in research.  He dissected the brain tissue taking portions of the hippocampus and cultured the tissue in B.S.K. medium.  This bacteria culture growth medium was the same Burgdorfer had used in his pioneer discovery work.  Lyme Borrelia is notoriously difficult to culture for research where live bacteria are the criteria.

The result according to MacDonald was four out of four brains demonstrated a live infection of Lyme type borreliosis.  He wrote a report on the study and began to notice resistance to his effort to publish it.  The verbatim text that MacDonald presented was not printed in any medical journal.  The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) finally printed a version as a letter but edited out references to Alzheimer’s voiding the point of MacDonald’s research on Lyme Borrelia as “infection” causing Alzheimer’s disease.

At about that time MacDonald learned that he was being called a charlatan and a research fraud.   The rumors were being passed around at the highest levels of the medical community.  So MacDonald left his Long Island lab and moved to Texas.  It was years later he returned to Lyme research in New York State and was involved in the important discovery of biofilm which is an infection as a Borrelia colony.  These mucus-fibrin “nests” exist as micro enclosed “globules” within body tissue where collected Borrelia are sheltered from detection and attack of the immune system and antibiotic treatments.

The MacDonald Alzheimer borreliosis research was more than a decade prior to a duplicating research which occurred at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland.  Dr. Judit Miklossy[8]published a formal research report on the post mortem biopsy evidence of live Borrelia present in the brain.  She studied spinal fluid, brain tissue and blood of deceased Alzheimer’s patients.  Here again this substantiation of evidence is producing no interest in the official American medical research community.  Proof denied because duplicated research is required and isn’t done for verification of research by MacDonald or Miklossy.

The last example is what must be called a “game changer” and unites the research efforts of various independents in the U.S. and in Europe with unsettling details.

Biology professor emeritus Morten Laane, a senior faculty member at the University of Oslo, Norway and colleague Ivar Mysterud published a formal research report on  [9]Borrelia infection of human blood.  He and a colleague carried out this microscope study and it is illustrated with photographs of live bacteria.  A very precise and academically correct example of research biology, which stands on demonstrated evidence.  Here again the theory pleomorphism is recognized and stated in the context of the study published.  The presence of round cystic Borrelia bacteria in human red blood cells and “bleb” organisms which are smaller egg-like Borrelia offspring that detach from the parent organism when it becomes cystic in the blood cell.  Both are protected to a degree by the blood cell’s membrane from the hosts immune system detection and antibody activity.

Professor Laane’s research work is the single most important contribution in several years.  However, this did not win a Nobel Prize for medical research as might be expected; rather he was put out of his lab at the university!  This is a clearly political reprisal in response to publication of research which runs across the grain of standard concept and medical orthodoxy.  Put another way, “He let the cat out of the bag”.

In recognition of this research the circle has closed in establishing that Lyme type Borrelia like syphilis bacteria are blood infective and that means congenital and sexual transfers of infection are certain to occur.  The blood and plasma transfusions which are routine in hospitals are on some occasions contaminated with bacteria most certainly.  The magnitude of the problem has become multiplied by a factor of 10.  The liability for America’s corporate capitalist medical establishment is too great to calculate.  Absolute disaster seems an appropriate definition.

The fact that political contamination mentioned above occurred in a country with socialized medicine is almost a consolation.  America’s questionable performance in research and government oversight with regard to its ethical integrity now shares this with Norway.

As to Lyme Borrelia and blood infection, the entirely correct, long held assumption that tick bites are directly associated with infection now has a lot of company.  The Center for Disease Control  (CDC) can rest itself from the activity of argument about when, where or what kind of tick may have bitten someone.  Bull’s eye E.M. rash and all the narrow criteria which it has defended have become only a fractional diagnostic at best.  We are now discussing not tick, but a social disease which, like syphilis a century ago, is making fools of medical establishments on both sides of the Atlantic.  Symptom features in a bewildering complexity made syphilis infection “The Great Imitator”.  A title already valid for Lyme Borreliosis as “The New Great Imitator”.

The implication this article presents is as disturbing in a political sense as it is in view of obstructed research.  A betrayal of public trust is demonstratable.  The avoidant and obstructive policies of government and institutions of health have served to block the use of valid scientific research accomplished decades ago.

The problem specifically is the theory of pleomorphism is not being given recognition even when preponderant evidence strongly supports it.  Developing an effective treatment of a borreliosis infection depends on the recognition of pleomorphism as a first step.  Those who are in charge have been stubbornly standing in the way of allowing this step to be taken for more than three decades.  It’s like the old joke about “waiting for the other shoe to hit the floor”.  It’s a metaphor of long held and perplexed expectation and waiting for valid Borrelia research to be given official recognitions.

This old joke symbolically presents the situation.

There was a quiet man who lived in a rooming house.  In the room next door lived an old gentleman who walked with a halting step.  On most nights the quiet man would be in bed before the old gentlemen came home but he could hear him come down the hall way and open his door, then hear the bed springs when he sat on his bed.  Presently he heard the sound of a shoe hit the floor but only one shoe, never two.  This happened every night the same way and it bothered the quiet man, waiting for the other shoe to hit the floor.  One day coming home he was told by his landlady that the old gentleman had passed away in his sleep.  As he walked down the hallway he saw the old gentleman’s door standing open and looking in he saw leaning against the wall beside the bed, a wooden leg.


[1] “Lyme Disease – A Tick-Borne Spirochetosis?” (1982, June). Science, Vol. 216.  Retrieved November 2015:

[2] Encyclopedia Brittanica. “Pleomorphism.”

[3] Cook, Gordon. “Tropical Medicine: An Illustrated History of the Pioneers.” (2007) Academic Press:  167. Web. 3 Nov. 2015


[4] Everything Explained Today, “Borrelia Explained” (2015, October30),


[5] Manchester, K.L., “Louis Pasteur, Fermentation, and a rival”, South African Journal of Science,  2007,

[6] Pasteur, Louis, “Pasteur’s Papers on the Germ Theory”,  Historic Public Health Articles,


[7] McDoanald, Alan, “The Biology of Lyme Disease: An Expert’s Perspective”,  (July 20, 2013)

[8] Miklossy, J. (2004). Borrelia burgdorferi persists in the brain in chronic lyme neuroborreliosis and may be associated with Alzheimer disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease , 639-649.


[9] Laane, Morten and Mysterud, Ivar, “A simple method for the detection of live Borrelia spirochaetes in human blood using classical microscopy techniques”, Biological and Biomedical Reports (2013)


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